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Cholera toxin also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to ctx ctx or ct is ab5 multimeric protein complex secreted by the bacterium vibrio cholerae ctx is responsible for the massive watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection it is a member of the heat labile enterotoxin familycholera toxin b subunit cholera toxin ct is a bacterial protein toxin produced by vibrio cholerae which binds to cellular membranes with high affinity ct is composed of an active subunit a which induces toxicity by continuously activating stimulatory g proteins gs thereby increasing cyclic adenine monophosphate levels and a the actions of cholera toxin when cholera toxin is released from the bacteria in the infected intestine it binds to the intestinal cells known as enterocytes epithelial cell in above diagram through the interaction of the pentameric b subunit of the toxin with the gm1 ganglioside receptor on the intestinal cell triggering endocytosis of the toxincholera toxin ct was discovered exactly half a century ago by sn de we have come a long way since this epoch making discovery retrospectively science had to wait a long time since kochs prediction of the existence of a toxin and its actual discovery by de ct is not just another cholera toxin an exotoxin produced by vibrio cholerae a protein enterotoxin that binds to the membrane of enteric cells and stimulates the adenylate cyclase system causing the hypersecretion of chloride and bicarbonate ions resulting in increased fluid secretion and the severe diarrhea characteristic of cholera

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